We did not search “grey literature” and the snowball search yielded few new references. Every code project we studied violated at least a few. The management was then able to recognize that several (but not all) of these “younger” projects were actually making very good progress compared to “normal” code development rates and had very high potential for producing successful codes that would give the whole program substantially improved tools. All recognized the great potential of data archives to facilitate comparative and time-series (see Time Series: General) research as well as to aid the social and behavioral sciences to become more transparent and self-correcting. The archives are largely national in funding, organization, and substantive scope; there is no single international archive of social science data to which all social and behavioral scientists can turn, nor is there as yet a complete ‘union catalog.’ There was discussion in the late 1950s of organizing central data archives for all of Europe, but the present nationally based system emerged in its stead. However, the major organizing principle of a comparative case study often includes others that are subsidiary but inherent in the nature of the cases selected. Align authority with responsibility. Data archives usually are administratively housed in research universities or in government science or information agencies. These collections of survey data were under development by 1947 at Williams College (Massachusetts), based upon holdings that Roper had been accumulating for 10 years. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. 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URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B0080430767041954, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B0123693985002048, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780444642417501397, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128169582000137, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B0123693985002875, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B0080430767007567, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0065245805660068, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B008043076700019X, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B0080430767041826, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1386505614000446, Human–Environment Relationship: Comparative Case Studies, International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, 13th International Symposium on Process Systems Engineering (PSE 2018), Jaffer H. Ghouse, ... David C. Miller, in, Heather J. Hether, Christopher Calabrese, in, Douglass E. Post, ... Robert F. Lucas, in, ] widely used by the IT industry. Using a methodology developed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Engineering Department [71], a contingency factor of 1.6 was calculated to account for the additional risks, uncertainties, and complexities for the restrictive computing environments that these projects shared (Eq. Roper was joined in contributions by two other leaders of public opinion polling in the US, George H. Gallup and Archibald Crossley, and by many of the other leading survey firms. Case studies and qualitative comparative analyses share a common explanatory limitation with quantitative models—they are fundamentally heuristic rather than definitive. Rational choice analysts anticipate that the substantive provisions of international environmental accords will have a strong focus on enforcement mechanisms when addressing common pool resources or common sinks, and a strong focus on information flows, compensation mechanisms and reducing transactions costs when addressing regulatory harmonization. Examples thesis statement comparative contrast essays for essay analyzing poetry Examples thesis statement comparative contrast essays for marketing case study book pdf The names of institutions, on the car riage to stop, or as hindering gen der of being better able to answer the questions from chapter as illustrated in figure. (7)). For social practices theorists successful international environmental cooperation is not a matter of altering incentives while leaving interests unchanged, but of altering beliefs so definitions of interest will be changed. It is a good way to encourage change and to get the team members to see how other groups and industries tackle their problems. The Kite, Puffin and Finch code projects were started around early 1997. Several code projects failed in spite of having adequate time. New migrations since 1990, especially of abstract as mentioned by r s nen 2010 emphasise the individual work. Funding for these operations varies widely in scale and stability. Codes that customers, especially the users, do not want to use are like experiments that do not take data or equipment that people do not use. In order to design a comparative study, abstracts are collected from universities (i) with a guideline in Turkey (ii) without a guideline in Turkey and (iii) with a guideline in the USA. Comparative case study method for research report outline The special comparative case study method need has diminished. The project manager must be able to control the resources and the team, and have the active support of senior management. The program included the development of large-scale, massively-parallel computer platforms, the associated operating systems and code development tools, application codes and supporting algorithms and models. By the beginning of the twenty-first century, most developed countries and some developing countries had organized formal and well-functioning national data archives. Douglass E. Post, ... Robert F. Lucas, in Advances in Computers, 2006. However, this failure may cause management to take actions that punish rather than help the code team, and thus contribute to the failure of the entire project. For example, the Gull code project staff probably had a staffing level of about 50 for the first 4 or 5 years of its life instead of the 35 we assumed. An example might be the use of extensive levels of templates and inheritance that complicates the code and leads to significant indirect addressing that impairs parallel performance by increasing the penalties due to high memory latency. Single case studies vs. multiple case studies: A comparative study Johanna Gustafsson Academy of Business, Engineering and Science Halmstad University Halmstad, Sweden Keywords: Case study, single case study, multiple case studies Paper type: Literature review ABSTRACT There are several different definitions and kinds of case studies. Conversations may call for special forms of disaggregation and analysis. We calibrated this model for scientific code projects using the comparative case study data. The first stream of work has highlighted such considerations as the greater difficulty of regulating large numbers of actors, each creating a small part of the problem, than a small number, each creating a significant part of it; the different opportunities for particular governments to regulate depending on whether those involved in an activity move from place to place (as in shipping) or remain in one place (as in mining); the impact of linkage or separation between costs and benefits of better environmental practice (for instance, the great difficulty of securing cooperation from upstream or upwind polluters); and the influence of changing cost–benefit ratios of environmentally superior action as new technology is developed or regulations alter the relative cost of continuing old rather than adopting new forms of activity. Because this method examines possible configurations, and two or more different configurations may explain the same outcome in different cases, the qualitative comparative method should be contrasted with traditional (tabular) multivariate analysis. Developing improved code development methods is very important and deserves support and emphasis. Functions points were not developed for technical software, but were the best measure available. Quantification spread so extensively that recent case-study-methods books focus on quantitative procedures rather than on qualitative processes or interpretation. A comparative case study is a research approach to formulate or assess generalizations that extend across multiple cases. The standard FP scaling for the size of the code team (Eq. The degree of innovative computer science in the code is of little interest to the user. Through these case study analyses and a review of current research, a holistic assessment of the theory and practice of social media for health promotion is presented. You will understand the nature of values that reinforce them, were central in the success july. They will become more capable as they acquire new skills and will be more productive. However, inspiring UGC is difficult. The two projects (Egret and Jabiru) that successfully met the initial milestone were at least 8 years old. There is no comparable North American organization, although in the 1960s there was the Council of Social Science Data Archives. If you don’t give it sufficient emphasis, your sponsor may impose software quality procedures that will very likely be much more onerous and less effective than the ones you would identify yourself. C.G. Because of potentially sensitive information being obtained from individuals through such qualitative methodologies, sociologists engaged in primary research are often required to conform to certain ethical standards, including the informed consent of the participants and their own guarantees of record destruction to protect the anonymity of individuals. Successful change takes time and requires that the people in the institution feel “safe” and trust the management to treat them fairly. The purpose of this research is to examine the way two New Zealand-based case study organizations, a tertiary institution and a primary industry organization, use the social networking site Bebo for communication. Another point is that it is clear from the function point scaling relations (Eqs. Most other potential case study opportunities involve single projects with unique goals, requirements, and institutional environments. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. This openstax book is available for free at cnx. Seven code projects were analyzed (Table VIII). Tor Ingebrigtsen, ... Jeffrey Braithwaite, in International Journal of Medical Informatics, 2014. In the first case, we identified a study as cross-curricular comparative if it compared the results of curriculum A with curriculum B. This quantitative current advanced among those conducting case studies by the 1970s, such as Arend Lijphart (and later Ada Finifter). Because archives' holdings have now accumulated to encompass decades of observation in some societies, it may be anticipated that future historians will be among the heaviest users of data archives. school-based disaster education through curricular and extra-curricular activities: a comparative case study a thesis submitted to the graduate school of social sciences of middle east technical university by elanur yilmaz in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of master of science in the department of curriculum and instruction march 2014 Since 1977 the archives have been organized loosely under the International Federation of Data Organizations (IFDO), which is an associate member of the ISSC. These “lessons learned” were based on a qualitative and a quantitative analysis of the histories of the different code projects and comparison with the Information Technology industry and conventional project management and scientific research. This study examines master of art (MA) theses abstracts written in English in terms of their texual structures. There is also a substantial level of usage by journalists, policy analysts, and citizens. The multiplication rule, rm, is used to calculate the number of possible ordered configurations of r categories, given m conditions. While the “lessons learned” list may seem obvious and certainly contains no surprises, implementing them in practice is always challenging. When a well-specified theory is available, a researcher can construct a pattern of testable implications of the theory and match it to a pattern of observations in a single case (Campbell 1975). The Gull project was successful in meeting a different set of milestones, but not the initial set. Because Table VII. Modus Operandi Analysis. The first step is to assemble a list of probable causes, preferably one that is quasi-exhaustive. Run the code project like the project that it is, with requirements, deliverables, a sound plan, realistic schedules and adequate resources. Thus the code team sizes were generally estimated by the code team leaders. Computer science research within the context of an application project greatly adds to the risks and often results in code project failure. This work presents a tray-by-tray distillation column model using MESH equations within the IDAES modeling framework that is suitable for both simulation and deterministic optimization. Moreover, future directions for both the research and practice of health promotion on social media are identified. Each of these involves pattern matching. Such codes are a waste of resources and the efforts of creative people. Rockwell, in International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, 2001. (8)) [74] was modified to match the comparative case study data. Rokkan and Scheuch sought to describe and understand the movement toward a united Europe. Knight, in International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, 2001. R.C. Without a verification and validation program for the codes and their applications, there is no reason to believe that the code results have any validity at all. The nature of comparative case studies may be explored from the intersection of comparative and case study approaches. For reasons of anonymity, we have identified the projects with birds [43]. Using statistical ‘degrees of freedom’ as a metaphor, the theory-directed case study is based on the concept of ‘implications space,’ which is similar to ‘sampling space.’ Testable implications are functional equivalents of degrees of freedom, such that the more implications (like a larger sample) the more confident we are in the validity of the conclusions drawn. By identifying the common elements that led to success or failure to achieve objectives and comparing them to the experience of the information technology (IT) community (e.g., [48,49,70,71]), we developed a set of recommended practices for large-scale technical code projects (Table VII). Indeed, many of the most significant improvements in the physics have been due to the development and use of new and more powerful computational mathematics techniques and algorithms that, together with increased computer power, enable the scientist to solve problems that couldn’t be addressed with prior generations of computers. Both areas are crucial for success for technical software projects, and have special—and often not well understood—requirements. And Scheuch sought to describe and understand the movement toward a united Europe based... The risks and often results in code project team, and processes users is physics. 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