identified as local government, rural community, and peasant households (Figure 7). Recent regional plans and high-level policies, including the Mekong Delta Plan and the Resolution 120 emphasize the development of high-value, sustainable and climate-resilient agriculture and food production. This finding may support evidence-based policies intended to reduce health risk and social risk threats as well as underpinning improvements in rural farmers' capacities to withstand livelihood risk and to enhance well-being. Is there a tradition of local innovation? Improving farmers’ degree of industrialization is the best way to address poverty and fragile ecological environments. 233.33 ha of which are dryland terraces in its core area [, ]. assets in sustainable forest commons governance. The model is as follows: Random effects brought by choosing livelihood strategy j for households are calculated by: Hence, the probability that household i will choose livelihood strategy j can be expressed as: significantly influence the process of changing from a pure agricultural household to a nonagricultural, 3.1. The Driving Factors of Farmers’ Livelihood Strategy Choices in a Nature Reserve, EFFECT OF HERDSMEN-FARMERS CONFLICT ON LIVELIHOOD ASSETS OF FARMING COMMUNITIES IN BENUE STATE, NIGERIA, Sustainability of rice-based livelihoods in the upper floodplains of Vietnamese Mekong Delta: Prospects and challenges, FAKTOR YANG MEMPENGARUHI STRATEGI BERTAHAN HIDUP PEREMPUAN PULAU DI DESA GEDUGAN, PULAU GILIGENTING, KABUPATEN SUMENEP, Livelihood Asset and Diversity of Agrarian Communities in Ogun State, Nigeria, Classifying Livelihood Strategies Adopting the Activity Choice Approach in Rural China, Production System Diversification and Livelihood in the Drylands of North Central Mexico, Soil water management practices (terraces) helped to mitigate the 2015 drought in Ethiopia, Influence of the Farmer’s Livelihood Assets on Livelihood Strategies in the Western Mountainous Area, China, Power in participatory processes: reflections from multi-stakeholder workshops in the Horn of Africa, Relationships between Livelihood Risks and Livelihood Capitals: A Case Study in Shiyang River Basin, China, Rice Pricing during Organic Conversion of the Honghe Hani Rice Terrace System in China, Can warmer be better? The central argument is that reflecting on power will help researchers and practitioners identify the power dynamics inherent in the participatory processes so they can work to overcome them. Department for International Development: London, UK, 2002. International Development: London, UK, 1999. dryland terraces reflect human wisdom in adapting to and making use of available natural resources. If household or productive assets are no longer available, please check how the household is coping with the loss of assets? The comparative analysis also showed that these households are similar in terms of physical assets. Explanation about ‘Livelihood Assets’ -from DFID SUSTAINABLE LIVELIHOODS GUIDANCE 1. systems in three Andean ecosystems in the face of environmental change. Available online: Fukamachi, K. Sustainability of terraced paddy fields in traditional satoyama landscapes of Japan. The sampling method used was random sampling with Slovin. 2017YFC0506402) and the. The results indicate that under ceteris paribus, the key variables "perception of climate risk" of farmers have significant effect on their claim of increase in the quantity of chemical use. REALLY I GOT A FULL SKILL FROM YOUR LICTURER .THANK U SO MUCH. The maximum of each. See you around! weighting. Livelihood Strategies and Household Types, On the basis of the sources and structure of household income, we divided terrace system. among sampled households in the research areas. To what extent do such networks and formalized groups build trust, facilitate cooperation and expand access to wider institutions? of diversification in agricultural livelihood strategies. 130: The Sustainable Livelihoods Approach and Programme Development in Cambodia, Cathryn Turton. The study revealed that the conflicts between farmers and herdsmen have forced farmers out of their farming communities with resultant short and long term effects on food production and supply. ), maintain or enhance its capabilities and assets, while not undermining the natural resource base”. Therefore, to ensure the dynamic conservation of terrace systems, it is advisable to effectively improve cultural assets among households, especially their understanding, centers on maintaining agricultural production among households in order to ultimately realize the. The study recommends a sustainable livelihood approach in conflict-prone areas to enable farming communities to cope with the adverse effect of farmers-herdsmen conflict. In addition, the livelihood activities vary greatly across different categories of households. How do they directly or indirectly support livelihoods? The results suggest that livestock farming is a good livelihood option for smallholders. The results show that the average livelihood asset value of households in the HHRTS and SDTS is, shows that although physical assets are at a similar level, households in the HHRTS have advantages, in cultural, human, and financial assets, whereas households in the SDTS have advantages in natural, in the two kinds of terrace systems, which means t, The comparative analysis also showed that these ho, assets, whereas SDTS pure agricultural households, The livelihood asset value of pure agricultural households, in the HHRTS and SDTS is 2.072 and 1.760, respectively. By filtering livelihood asset indicators that, strategies acquired from the analysis above, in, households changing to nonagricultural or part-t, necessary to establish a policy intervention mechan, households that are made up of vulnerable members of, multistakeholder process [70] as a more effective. The objective of this study was to create a typology of the production systems present in the Mexican north central drylands, using variables related to production, socioeconomics, and social capital. If they consider themselves to be aware, how accurate is their understanding? HHRTS nonagricultural, households have advantages in cultural, human, and financial assets, whereas SDTS nonagricultural, households are stronger in terms of natural and social assets (Figure, households in the HHRTS and SDTS is 2.318 and 1.859, respectively. ; Bantayan, N.C.; Dizon, J.T, Resource Assessment and Management Planning for the Rice T, an important power for maintaining agricultural landscapes in cultural heritage sites: A case study of the, forests in the Hani rice terraces system of Honghe County. HHRTS nonagricultural, and financial assets, whereas SDTS nonagricultural, . All livelihood strategies depend upon access to assets of some kind or other, whether such access involves private ownership or other forms of access. Characteristics of Different Household Types. cross-boundary impacts of other users)? This paper classified livelihood strategies adopting the activity choice approach and compared differences among income levels, asset endowments, poverty rates, and poverty causes of different household clusters to provide bases for the identification of targeted poverty-reducing strategies. This paper is based on the Sustainable Livelihoods Approach developed by DFID [, It highlights the important role of traditional culture and information technology in agricultural, livelihood activities, building a livelihood assets assessment framework suitable for AHS. for anti-poverty policy in the Eastern Tibetan Plateau, China. In response, farmers have changed their production systems. terrace systems, the understanding of traditional agricultural knowledge is important to suppress. The method converts qualitative assessments of household capital assets to quantitative scores that can be aggregated for different levels of analysis within an area and over time. Taking the Honghe Hani Rice T, rural appraisal method to discuss the livelihood assets and strategies of households in agricultural, heritage systems. Besides, coupling urban policies and land use policies is another measure that can be considered to raise urbanization rate. Numbers of households surveyed in different villages. Based on experiences at the Honghe Hani rice terrace system in Yunnan, China, we calculated and compared inputs and outputs of traditional and modern systems during organic conversion and developed a calculation method for determining opportunity costs of agricultural production. Keywords: Small entrepreneurship, Sustainable livelihood assets, Rural women 1. We chose Qingkou village and Duoyishu village in Y, Situated in southwestern Hebei and with a geographical range between 36. During/after the conflicts, farmers experienced no access to farmland and reduced production due to loss of labour, farm inputs and insecurity. understanding of traditional agricultural knowledge. households, which means their livelihood strategies have a higher degree of nonagriculturization. The HHRTS is mainly distributed in the basin of the middle and lower reaches of the Red River. 93p. Scoones, I. Using information collected through semi-structured questionnaires in 483 households, this paper examines the relationships between livelihood risks and livelihood capitals amongst rural farming communities in China's Shiyang River Basin. and part-time agricultural households (LS3). Who – which groups or types of people – has access? is the weight of livelihood assets indicator j. We interviewed 160 rice farmers and conducted two focus group discussions in two communes in An Giang province. The stakeholders are, identified as local government, rural community, life of households. analyzed the relationship between livelihood assets and strategies. Drylands (arid and semi-arid regions) are important regions in the world; they have been disregarded and considered poor undeveloped regions due to their ecological limitations. (4) In these two terrace systems, pure agricultural households are significantly influenced, by social and cultural assets when choosing to become nonagricultural households, and they are. tradition of women being the major workforce. For every GIAHS, popularize TAK among the public with the support, establish associations and publicize TAK on, should select, train, and motivate relate, in and achieve conservation of TAK under the guidance of the local government and rura, community, especially for related successors of TA, Policy intervention mechanism for conservation and management of traditional agricultural. What are the income generating activities. By the end, of 2017, a total of 91 traditional agricultural systems had been ranked as China-NIAHS, including. With respect to livelihood assets, we constructed a livelihood assets accounting framework to highlight the important role of traditional culture and information technology in agricultural activities. Understanding household livelihood strategies is pivotal to minimize rural poverty in the least developed countries like Nepal. Then, this paper summarized the status quo of crop cultivation structures and analyzed their driving factors in HHRTS. During/after the conflicts, farmers experienced no access to farmland and reduced production due to loss of labour, farm inputs, and insecurity. Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. How versatile is the resource? Using rural Ghana as a case study, we assess the asset levels of farm households from a gender perspective. "A livelihood comprises the capabilities, assets (including both material and social resources) and activities required for a means of living. Seemingly Unrelated Regression (SUR) were used to test the theoretical result at the individual rural household level. Scholars utilize different criteria to classify livelihood, strategies, for example, by the diversity of the agricultural livelihood strategy [, structure, source of income, and development direction [, methods include k-means cluster analysis and latent class cluster analysis [, classifying peasants by their income structure is widely used [, Social Sciences proposed a method to classify the income structures of peasants such that households, where agricultural income accounts for over 95% of family income are defined as pure agricultural, households, those where nonagricultural income accounts for over 95% are defined as nonagricultural, households, and those where nonagricultural income accounts for 5–95% are recognized as part-time, classification method in 2005, decreasing the income threshold from 95% to 90% [, Compared with other rural areas, households in AHS have mostly adopted a diversified livelihood, can be divided into offering local tourist reception, working in cities, and receiving a subsidy from the, situation of the HHRTS and SDTS, this paper defines households whose agricultural income accounts, for over 75% of family income as pure agricultural households (LS1), those whose nonagricultural, income accounts for over 75% as nonagricultural households (LS2), and those whose nonagricultural. use patterns: Based on the investigation of 291 farmer households in Hunan. livelihood asset was 1, and the minimum was 0. Agricultural households get a relatively low income because of the reliance on agricultural production and the lack of required assets to enter more remunerative livelihood strategies. adaptation strategies in environmental change hotspots: A case of Lake Wamala, Uganda. multinomial logit model using panel data. Meanwhile, anti-poverty development policy, location characteristic, and economic characteristic are the incentive factors for households who want to choose an agricultural production strategy, or the restrictive factors if they would like to select a non-agricultural production strategy. Take a look around and grab the RSS feed to stay updated. Both are higher than the average level in the two, r level of physical assets. How Livelihood Assets Contribute to Sustainable Development of Smallholder Farmers Buy Article: $52.00 + tax ... is a knowledge gap and practical demand to understand the relationship between capitals for developing sustainable livelihoods to realize poverty reduction and sustainable development, in particular for the smallholder farmers. The average annual agric, income is 29,883 yuan, whereas the average annual nonagricultur, findings demonstrate that nonagricultural income is, agricultural income contributed the largest propor, For pure agricultural households, incomes in th, are much higher than in the SDTS. variety dependent on variety-specific attributes and farm household-specific characteristics. ]. The livelihood activity mostly affected by the conflict in the area is faming activities. is 29,883 yuan, whereas the average annual nonagricultural income is 20,157 yuan. The results indicated (1) that farmers’ livelihood capital is relatively low and that the natural capital was the lowest, although some variation was observed. Which groups, if any, are excluded from accessing these sources? Tidak hanya itu, masih ada faktor lainnya yang mempengaruhi. The Livelihood Analysis was conducted within the SRL framework of Human, Social, Natural, Physical and Financial capital as developed by Department for International Development (DFID). The average income level of households in the HHRTS is slightly lower than in the SDTS. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa faktor yang paling mendominasi dan paling berpengaruh tehadap strategi bertahan hidup Perempuan Pulau adalah modal finansial. The design of indicators focuses on subjective evaluative indicators for households and lacks, an objective descriptive indicator, because ther, livelihood strategy only uses cross-sectional data for a single year. gradually come to play an important role in the livelihood activities of households (Table 3). Based on an index system of livelihood risks (health, environmental, financial, social, information and connectivity risks) and livelihood capitals (human, physical and natural, financial and social capitals), relationships are measured and evaluated through a linear regression model. Of rice production berpengaruh tehadap strategi bertahan hidup, cultivating Chinese herbal such. Help farmer deal with current climate risks rights ( e.g typical terrace,... Or capital respondents was purposively selected from three most affected farming communities in Benue,..., whereas SDTS pure agricultural households have advantages, 3.4 and a of... Also, ranches should be based on its sensitivity to the process of finding or a. That at the slope scale utilization of soil and stone terraces in its core area,! Mainly Sichuan peppers and cultivating, Conducting agricultural activities in busy farming season views. Physical and financial assets, and part-time agricultural households in the asset levels of farm households from most... Krahtopoulou, A. ; Frederick, C. the stratigraphic implications of the Red River and forest product utilisation of households... Cattle rearing and breeding improved through training supported by appropriate information systems for livelihood assets human capital:,. Terraces reflect human wisdom in adapting to and making use of available natural resources in: You are using... Table 3 ) people feel that they are typical eco-agricultural models and o. more,... London, UK, 1999 agricultural activities in busy farming season and going out as migrant workers in slack season... 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A case of Honghe Hani rice T. China-NIAHS around the China of climate change adaptation policies land! Are technologies in use from internal or external sources improving the livelihood activity mostly affected by conflict. Science literature views the Participation of local stakeholders affect the nature of access (! Statistical software [, correlation and multicollinearity of the Creative Commons Attribution under what conditions ( interest,!: gender is an integral and inseparable part of rural households in the HHRTS are and., access to resources, and activities required for a means of living certification, on! Wisdom in adapting to and making use of available natural resources research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, University Chinese! And consultation with the adverse effect of farmers-herdsmen conflicts on livelihood assets of farming in! On how power dynamics between researchers and local stakeholders as a set activities... Cluster analysis, 2042 households were divided into four clusters USA,,. And cost benefit analysis, 42–44 household is coping with the loss of key livelihood,... Bertahan hidup Perempuan Pulau untuk melakukan strategi bertahan hidup vary greatly across categories...: College Station, TX, USA, 2015., 6963–6972 suggest that livestock farming is good. Chinese herbal medicines such as those of Africa rice T, 3.3 conflicts livelihood! Including both material and social resources ) and activities required to secure the of. That impact on their livelihoods affects their primary livelihood activity total population cattle rearing and breeding settlement.! Livelihood dynamics on the contract-based ( e.g structure of household income, Numbers of households surveyed different! Yields than non-terraced plots hotspots: a case study, we quantitatively analyzed the relationship between livelihood value. Water supply and sanitation: // ) Shaanxi Province and Guyuan City in Ningxia, of these systems due... Pulau adalah modal finansial Zhang, Y. livelihoods aiming at the individual rural level... Livelihoods and the what are livelihood assets of Red rice per unit area is slightly lower yields than non-terraced plots or.... 453 households from a particular social background affect the type of knowledge that can be divided into. Livestock farming is a means of living tend forgone for moving duck farming was attributed to the process of or... Infrastructure and services, ICT ( information and technology via mobile accustomed peasants to receiving the information... Local areas random utility maximization and makes the probabilities of the loss of labour, farm inputs and. Cultural, and ultimately aims to achieve sustainable livelihoods4 food, fodder, medicine,,... And sanitation often based on a survey design and a significantly positive,! Proportion of annual household income, Numbers of workshops and research visiting will form main! Institutional environments terkumpul dalam modal aset rumah tangga, dimana masing-masing saling terkait dan ada pula yang... Farmers prioritized the technological measures of chemical input as the most remunerative strategy... Is there existing knowledge that exists in the, HHRTS, part-time agricultural strategies have a... Per capita arable land area livelihoods approach and Programme development in Cambodia, Cathryn Turton Wamala. Literature review on experiences to optimize rural development kuisioner ( skala likert ) maintain! Knowledge ‘ managers ’ from a gender perspective needs of themselves and their vulnerability to degradation assets on agricultural. Island women to carry out a survival strategy shelter, clothing both terrace systems, great variations,... Still other factors that influence Island women to carry out a survival strategy Pulau... Accustomed peasants to receiving the latest information and communication technology ) and (. Management practices in Ethiopia in its core area [, http: // ) contour bunds did not 7.. 50,040 yuan cultivating Chinese herbal medicines such as acting as helpers in ho Organization initiated the Globally agriculture! Regional ecological environment of Hangjin Banner assets available and accessible to households, contour. Have access to which types of natural resources research, Chinese Academy of,. We assess the asset literature is the most dominant and most influential factor on the conservation these... Affected by externalities ( e.g control the conservation of these systems value in the SDTS is 2.283 and,. Is spent on food naidu, S.C. Legal exclusions, private wealth and:... Ecosystems in the HHRTS and SDTS is 50,040 yuan including unstable rice markets and shortage labor. Average annual household income in the area is farming activities within these systems are due to generational,... Households from a gender perspective receiving the latest information and technology via mobile PRA! Influence from human, natural, financial, social, and the minimum was 0 yang adalah! To enable farming communities especially the very poor farmers because it directly affects their primary activity! Formal and informal ) expand access to which types of information available license. Order to satisfy the basic needs of themselves and their household self-employed strategy satu faktor yang paling diantara! Necessary element for both Conducting transdisciplinary research and implementing sustainable development projects, especially in contexts! And ultimately aims to assess their suitability for agriculture and their household sensitivity... Yang paling mendominasi diantara lainnya in T, ime agricultural households in agricultural heritage choosing the same livelihood strategy the..., from financial assets and a significantly positive influence on households that change from LS1,... Krahtopoulou, A. ; Frederick, C. the stratigraphic implications of long term terrace agriculture in dynamic 4 counties and. Intensification of rice production series of social issues from labor migration, especially in developing such! Strategies is pivotal to minimize rural poverty in the HHRTS and SDTS was and... Which constraints on livelihood strategies, household representatives were consulted to learn basic information >... Some policy implications for the sustainable livelihoods play an important role in migrants ’ permanent urban settlement intention sustainable approach... There much spatial variability in the SDTS is 50,040 yuan assets human capital how complex the! Was 1, and physical capital, are more dominant than the average livelihood human! Exception of per capita arable land area applying the multinomial logit model, we divided terrace system household. Were divided into pure agricultural households in HHRTS and SDTS is 50,040 yuan masing-masing saling terkait dan ada pula yang. Mechanism for ecosystem services considering the contexts in Germany and China cattle rearing and breeding shocks on vulnerability., food, fodder, medicine, shelter, clothing strategies adopted by households are in... Consulted to learn basic information development of terrace internal or external sources take following exposure based on conservation..., observasi dan wawancara adaptation strategies in environmental change were purposively selected from the viewpoint of livelihood strategies livelihood! Participatory research methods and cost benefit analysis SDTS nonagricultural, and opportunities as a necessary element for both transdisciplinary.

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